The Lions (8-8) have won seven of nine to give themselves a shot at earning a postseason spot for the first time since 2016 going into their regular-season finale at Green Bay.
The Justin Fields-led Bears (3-13) took two leads in the opening quarter before collapsing and losing a franchise-record ninth straight game.
Goff completed passes to 10 teammates and an 11th, rookie receiver Jameson Williams, ran 40 yards on a reverse early in the third quarter to set up Jamaal Williams' 15th rushing score that gave Detroit a three-touchdown lead.
Jamaal Williams had a career-high 144 yards rushing on 22 carries and D'Andre Swift added 117 yards from scrimmage and two scores.
Swift put the Lions up for good with a 17-yard touchdown run early in the second quarter and his 21-yard reception put them ahead by four touchdowns in the third.
Goff was 21 of 29 for 255 yards and did not throw an interception for an eighth consecutive game.
Meanwhile, rookie pass rusher Aidan Hutchinson got the better of Fields, forcing two turnovers in the first half.
Fields started strong, running for 105 yards in the first quarter alone and throwing a 13-yard touchdown to Cole Kmet, before Hutchinson recovered his fumble and picked off his pass in the second quarter.
Fields finished with 132 yards rushing, giving him 1,143 this year. With a game to play at home against Minnesota, he has a chance to break the single-season NFL quarterback rushing record of 1,206 yards set by Baltimore's Lamar Jackson in 2019 during his MVP season.
When Detroit shut down Fields' ability to run for the final three quarters, he was in trouble. Fields was 7 of 21 — completing a season-low 33.3% of his passes — for 75 yards.
Bears: OGs Michael Schofield III (knee) and OL Teven Jenkins (neck) were injured during the game while WR Dante Pettis and DB Jaylon Jones were evaluated for concussions.
Lions: RB Justin Jackson (ribs) and S DeShon Elliott (shoulder) were inactive.
Bears: Mercifully close the season at home against Minnesota next Sunday.
Lions: Play the Packers on the road next Sunday.